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Cicero

106
Cicero born at Arpinum

100
Caesar born

c80
Cicero defends Roscius – daring because he attacks Sulla’s freedman,
Chrysogonus

80
Caesar awarded civic crown while doing military service in Asia

79-77
Cicero attends higher education in rhetoric at Athens and Rhodes

75
Cicero quaestor in Sicily

73-71
Spartacus rebellion

70
Cn. Pompeius Magnus M. Licinius Crassus

70
Cicero makes a breakthrough speech prosecuting Verres

69
Cicero is aedile
Caesar quaestor in Spain

69
Q. Hortensius Hortalus Q. Caecilius Metellus (Creticus)

68
L. Caecilius Metellus Q. Marcius Rex

68
Letters to Atticus start – continue until 44

67
C. Calpurnius Piso M’. Acilius Glabrio

67
Caesar speaks in favour of lex Gabinia

66
M’. Aemilius Lepidus L. Volcatius Tullus

66
Cicero as praetor speaks in favour of lex Manilia

65
Caesar aedile

63
M. Tullius Cicero C. Antonius (Hibrida)
Cicero consul:
1: speech against Rullus’s Agrarian bill;
2: Defence of Rabirius, accused (by JC?) of a murder that happened 37 years previously – the ’tiling’ of Saturninus under the SCU;
3: Catilinarian Conspiracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus
Tribune Metellus Nepos stopped Cicero from delivering his farewell address ‘because he had killed Roman citizens without trial’.

62
Bona Dea affair
Caesar praetor – divorced wife (perhaps Clodius’ lover) but did not help in Clodius’ prosecution, at which Cicero was a hostile witness (in 61)
Pompey returned from East and celebrated huge triumph towards the end of the year. Cicero failed to get him behind his Concordia ordinum largely because of the Optimates’ determination to ‘bring Pompey down to size’.

60
First Triumvirate formed, around time of Caesar’s successful election to Consul of 59

59
C. Iulius Caesar M. Calpurnius Bibulus
The ‘year of Julius and Caesar’ – total domination of the political scene by the ‘Tri’, JC’s Plebs and Pompey’s veteran soldiers. ‘Fasces and Faeces.’ Bibulus retired to his house and ‘proclaimed the omens’ every business day.

58
L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus A. Gabinius

58
Clodius tribune: Cicero goes into exile
58-49 Caesar in Gaul

57
P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos

57
Cicero back from exile: ‘triumphant’ journey from Brundisium to Rome. Successful speech to get his house back. Got Pompey the Corn Supply, and started to attack JC’s Campanian Law.

56
pro Sestio: makes speech against Vatinius

Conference at Luca: ‘recantation’ letter; supports JC’s provincial command being prolonged; basically retires from public life and writes de Oratore; follows Pompey’s and JC’s instructions and defends Gabinius and Vatinius respectively

55
Gn Pompeius Magnus M. Licinius Crassus

55
Pompey opened magnificent theatre and complex on the Campus Martius (first permanent theatre ever in Rome); Crassus began to raise huge army for campaign from his province of Syria against the Parthian Empire. Caesar continued to make war in northern Gaul, crossed the Rhine for punitive mission v German tribes and made first expedition to Britannia. Cicero stayed home.

54
L Domitius Ahenobarbus Ap. Claudius Pulcher

54
Elections for the next year were disrupted and postponed as Clodius’ and Milo’s gangs ran riot (literally). This will be true in 53 as well.

Julia, daughter of Caesar and wife of Pompey, died in childbirth. Pompey refused the hand of JC’s great niece (Octavia – sister of the future Emperor Augustus) and married into the Calpurnius family instead – Republican.

53
Crassus, his son and 30,000 Romans killed at the battle of Carrhae in Parthia.

52
Cn. Pompeius Magnus Q. Caecilius Metellus

52
Death of Clodius, killed by Milo’s orders. Consequent mob violence burnt down the Senate House (Clod’s funeral pyre). Sole consulship of Pompey. Armed troops in Forum (SCU). Mobsters arrested. Milo put on trial. Defended by Cicero who failed to give his speech.
Pompey brought in 5-year gap between consulship and proconsulship with important consequences for Cicero, and quite probably for JC.

51
Ser. Sulpicius Rufus M. Claudius Marcellus

51
Attempts to get Caesar back from Gaul begin.
In June, Cicero arrived in Asia to undertake his proconsulship of Cilicia (accompanied by Marcus Jnr, Quintus Snr and Jnr, and Tiro)

50
L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus C. Claudius Marcellus

50
Curio as Tribune vetoed every attempt to bring Caesar back (the Ops wanted to prosecute him for violence during 59 and ignoring Bibulus’ ‘omen-watching’.)
Pompey slowly won over to the Republicans’/Ops’ cause.
Senate requested a legion from each commander: Caesar gave one, and Pompey gave the one he’d previously lent Caesar – so JC lost two in effect.
December: Curio’s proposal in Senate for full disarmament (as long as JC became consul of 49?) agreed by 370-22. Vetoed.
Cicero returned in December hoping for Triumph -still therefore in nominal command of troops.

49
C. Claudius Marcellus L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus

49
When Mark Antony and Cassius (not the future assassin) tried to veto yet more attempts to bring Caesar back office-less, they were expelled from the Senate.
They ‘fled’ north to Caesar’s winter camp near the river Rubicon where Caesar then crossed that river with one legion to start what turned into full-scale civil war.
Pompey and republicans amazed at JC’s speed of attack took what armies they had east to Brundisium to (re)gain strength overseas in Greece and Asia.
At Corfinium, Domitius Ahenobarbus tried to make a stand, was soundly beaten but then spared by JC.
Cicero – – disappointed by Pompey’s lack of action stayed at Capua.
Met JC at Formiae. Couldn’t be persuaded even by JC to come to Rome and lend his weight to JC’s plans for the future. Tullia gave birth in May, same time as JC went to Spain to hunt down Pomp’s Spanish legions. So Cicero decided at last in June (7th) he must go to Pompey and the republicans at Dyrrhachium. Not much use there.

48
G. Julius Caesar (2) P. Servilius Isauricus

48
Cicero refused offer of fleet command from Cato after P’s defeat at Pharsalus. ‘Retired’ to Brundisium to await JC’s homecoming and decision.

47
Q. Fufius Calenus P. Vatinius (yes, that one)

47
Cicero pardoned by JC (Sept.) and allowed to return to Rome.
Divorces Terentia either in late 47 or early 46.

46
G. Julius Caesar (3) M. Aemilius Lepidus (future Triumvir)

46
Tullia and Dolabella divorced though Tullia pregnant. Cicero gave Pro Marcello speech in Senate praising JC but suggesting that the last great reform had not been made: a return to a constitution headed by an authoritative Senate. Disappointed, he ‘retired’ to writing: Brutus, Stoic Paradoxes, Cato, The Orator, Classification of Oratory. He re-married for financial reasons: Publilia (c. 16)
The year was 445 days long – the great year of JC’s reforms. He was appointed Dictator for 10 years.

45
G. Julius Caesar (4) without colleague – substitutes filled in when JC was away in Spain.

45
Tullia gave birth to son, but died days later (1st April). In mourning he wrote Consolation, and Hortensius, Academic Questions, On Ends, Tusculan Disputations.
Divorced Publilia for not showing enough sympathy/grief.
JC defeated last of the Pompeians/Republicans in Spain – celebrated Triumph on return. Symptomatic of ‘getting it wrong’. As was making Caninius consul on the last day for 11 hours! A few days previously in December, JC went for dinner at Cicero’s place in Puteoli while visiting an adviser Philippus, who owned a neighbouring estate and was married to his niece Atia. His great-nephew who had accompanied JC to Spain) was not there as he had gone to Illyricum to continue military training – Octavius.

44
G. Julius Caesar (5) Marcus Antonius

44
February 15 – the Lupercalia: Antony did thrice crown Caesar, but each time he refused. Made Dictator Perpetuo – dictator for life. Assassinated on March 15th.
Cicero not involved at all, but was acclaimed by the assassins. He tried to get them to move down from the Capitol and call the SCU – giving Praetors power of arrest and armed force. They didn’t listen. Deal done with MA – JC’s acts to stay in place in return for amnesty for assassins. MA gave famous funeral speech and announced JC’s will to the People. Assassins left Rome for country homes. MA in control of legislation and money. Until the young heir Octavius arrived in April . . .

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